Language Lens

A blog about life, discovery and culture through the lens of language and linguistics.

Native Speakers as the Language Authority

Language is a living thing… constantly changing and transforming in the face of modern society.  Spanish, unlike English, has an authority or “regulatory body” which monitors the language and works to promote linguistic unity between different Spanish speaking regions: the Real Academia Española (RAE), Royal Spanish Academy in English. The RAE works to ensure a common standard in the language, following its founding charter: “… to ensure the changes that the Spanish language undergoes […] do not break the essential unity it enjoys throughout the Spanish-speaking world.”   Since English has no official regulatory body, some suggest the Queen is that authority or dictionaries like the Oxford English dictionary or the Merriam-Webster dictionary, but in the end, dictionaries are just a collection of words and language is so much more than that.

There are many more countries in the world that speak Spanish compared to English, however, there are many more English speakers in the world as it´s the most common second language to learn and is a lingua franca.  English as a lingua franca (ELF) has emerged as a way to explain communication in English between speakers with different first languages. One in every four English speakers in the world are native speakers, therefore the majority are speaking English as their second language!  Since English doesn´t have this authority like the RAE for Spanish, it will naturally be influenced by many people who speak it as only a second language and not even from just natives.  Singlish is an example: colloquial English spoken in Singapore.  Although English is an official language in Singapore, Singlish is a dialect with unique intonations and grammar stemming from the influence of other languages in the region, such as Malay and Chinese.  It is a regional variation of English–a dialect in other words–but it´s not the same as comparing US and British English as these come from Standard English and are not influenced by other languages in the case of Singlish.

Despite so many people in the world speaking English at a near native level, it is still the native speakers who are thought to have authority in this according to Barbara Seidlhofer in her article English as a lingua franca.  Seidlhofer says that, “there is still a tendency for native speakers to be regarded as custodians over what is acceptable usage.”  Perhaps the RAE equivalent in English are the native speakers themselves.

Despite RAE´s controls, there is a lot of creativity with new words in Spanish.  I love how you can make a verb for almost anything, like matear (as in to drink mate), boludear (to be/act as a “boludo” in Argentina), and my personal favorite: salpimentar (to salt and pepper your food.)  With the internet and technology, news words are constantly being added to the English vocabulary, and English has its own way of creating new words, such as by combining two ideas and/or concepts (like in the examples below) or to make a verb from a noun for the action, such as “to google.”  The following is a summary of some brilliant new terms that really reflect culture in the United States and/or in English speaking countries.  Some made me laugh a bit too!  For a full list of terms from the original article “25 brilliant words to add to your vocabulary”, go here.

afterclap askhole beerboarding cellfish chairdrobe chiptease destinesia dudevorce hiberdating internest nonversation textpectation

I have been back in the United States for about four months, and I can´t say that I have heard any of the following terms used, but I wouldn´t be surprised if I started hearing them, or if they are already used.  Who hasn´t bought a bag of chips and in the end it´s more air than chips?  And “chairdrobe” is great for me, as I have done this my entire life!

These terms are definitely better understood by native speakers, as they join together two words or two ideas to describe a new phenomena, which may not even exist in the same way in a different culture.  Furthermore, these words aren´t “real words” (yet) that one can find in a dictionary.  They are reflections of culture influencing language to create new words for new activities. New words come from new ways of life, and again, language is always changing and evolving, just like life around us.

Exactly this, another way to think about things!

another perspective

Connecting meditation and language learning

I come to you almost two weeks after finishing my first meditation retreat.  This was for a technique called Vipassana, which is one of the most ancient forms of meditation from India.  Until about a year ago I had never heard of it, and until about two weeks ago I knew nothing about it.  I had tried several meditation techniques, never getting real direction and only getting frustrated in the process.  Maybe you relate.  Like everyone who starts, I was trying to stop my mind, but how can you do that really? And especially when you have a mind that will never seem to stop running? They say “mente a mil” in Spanish, literally the idea of your mind being at “speed one thousand.”

I am no expert and am pretty young in the meditation world honestly, but I now understand the point and have experienced some real results of my own.  Meditation can be practiced in many forms: in cleaning, drawing, focusing on breath, counting breath, scanning the body for sensations, the list goes on.  You are simply learning to observe your mind rather than stopping it, and each technique has a different approach on how to do it.  By observing, you become aware, and awareness is the first step to any kind of change.

Now I want to talk about language learning, and of course since this is a language blog!  A wise woman once taught me about this thing that happens when acquiring language.  First you become aware of a mistake you are making either on your own or with a teacher´s help. Then you get repeated correction from a teacher (and realize just how much you are making that mistake.) Thirdly, you start to correct yourself, and finally, the error is no longer an error and has been converted, corrected, transformed…however you want to call it.  There is something in linguistics called “fossilization” which is an error that has happened so much or was never learned correctly to begin with that it has “hardened” so to speak, leaving an imprint as a fossil does.  It´s a mistake that a student has made so many times that it has become part of their natural speech, for example.  In the world of meditation, you could call it taking root.

As I worked to find my bliss at the Vipassana retreat, I realized it wasn´t bliss at all really.  It was hard work sitting up for hours at a time and trying to focus.  I had some moments of bliss but there is nothing like the bliss of seeing some change in your life.   I “scanned my body” (and for anyone who has done it, you know what I mean) and throughout the week thoughts came to me, things I hadn´t thought about in years and others that came around and around again.  Some of these thought patterns we all have seem impossible to change, just like a fossilized mistake!

So I´m back to the real world, the hectic world that it is.  Those ten days in silence enjoying nature, finding inner peace, and searching for the right meditation position were blissful now that I compare it to the city noise.  Maybe it is  just that I´m back to the typical routine, and it feels intense because I had never calmed my mind like that before?  Why do we meditate really?  To find peace, tranquility…equanimity… equanimity… equanimity.  We do it to change our minds and to evolve, because you can evolve past the broken record that goes on and on in your head.  Awareness is the key to any kind of freedom, even freedom from language mistakes.  You too can correct and evolve past fossilized mistakes.  It just takes some work.

I had many days to sit and meditate and admittedly think about other things too.  One thing I thought about was this blog post in fact and the connection to fossilized mistakes and roots in our mind.  These things can change… it just takes some work.

meditation one

Happy Birthday Lengua Lens!

Language Lens started as a blog and later developed into something more: Lengua Lens.  One year ago today Lengua Lens was officially launched!  Thanks for your follows, interest and support this past year!

Happy Bday

Wondering about the World

People travel to wonder at the heights of mountains, at the huge waves of the sea, at the vast compass of the ocean, at the circular motion of the stars; and they pass by themselves without wondering.” –St Augustine

Hike

Fourteen songs to practice present perfect

soymeg:

The present perfect isn`t an easy verb tense to learn and for Spanish speaking students, it doesn`t translate exactly, so all the more reason why it`s challenging. What a great idea to practice the verb tense with songs. Which song is your favorite?

Originally posted on Bilinguish:

U2 in 1980. Shown from left to right: Clayton,... U2 in 1980. Shown from left to right: Clayton, Mullen, Bono, The Edge. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

I have climbed the highest mountain, I have run through the fields, but I still haven’t found…fourteen perfect songs to practice present perfect.  Well, here are a variety of songs in present perfect, in every genre from pop to classic rock to rhythm and blues to ska.  Vote on one to watch with the class, or watch them all. Don’t forget to tell us which was your favorite in the poll below.

1. U2 “I still haven’t found what I’m looking for”
This 1987 song by the Irish rock band U2 is popular in English classes learning the present perfect tense. How many of these things have you done?
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gY75dw64sqI

Read the lyrics to I Still Haven’t Found What I’m Looking For here.
Present perfect activity for English students complete with printable…

View original 772 more words

Citizens of the World: Attention Parents

After living abroad, maybe someone has called you a “Citizen of the World,” as you now belong to more than one place.  After leaving you tend to feel like you could go anywhere and the world doesn`t seem so big anymore.  This has been my experience, and I think many others would agree.

 The term “Citizen of the World” has come up yet again but this time for a much younger population: babies!  In a recent TED Talk with Patricia Kuhl, the co-director of the Institute for Brain and Learning Sciences at the University of Washington, she explains how babies are the real “Citizens of the World,” linguistically-speaking.

 New tools in modern neuroscience have shown the true magic that happens with babies in their brains during development.  Children are naturally good at learning language (and better than adults), but why exactly?  It is because of the critical period for learning, when their brains are more able and prepared to receive information, especially pertaining to language.  Until the age of 7, children are “language geniuses really” and after 7, “they fall off the map,” Patricia tells us.  If a child is to obtain the native accent of a language for example, they must be exposed (a lot) to the language before the age of 7.  So one critical period for language development is before the age of 7!

 There is another critical period between 6 to 8 months when babies are acquiring and mastering the specific sounds of the languages they hear around them, regardless of what language it is.  In other words, during the short 2 month period, this is the time when babies are acquiring sounds which later become their language (or languages).  If you expose a child to a native speaker of any language, during thistime, it will only make it easier for them to acquire that specific language, or another one similar, later.

 This is what makes language learning different for children versus adults, because adults have already become “culture bound listeners” to their native language, knowing only those sounds. Adults are bound by memory and other representations that are formed early in development, where babies are able to acquire any sound which makes them true “Citizens of the World” for a time.  What the babies are doing during this critical period is taking statistics of the distribution of specific sounds they hear during speech and then by understanding the distribution of sounds, they become “language bound listeners” to the sounds and language they hear most often.   Eventually they adopt the language they are given–of their parents–which comes with all the sounds of that language, and it changes their brains.
 
 To test this, Patricia showed a study where American babies who had not yet been exposed to a second language, were exposed to Mandarin Chinese for the first time during the critical period of 6 to 8 months.  It was as if relatives came to stay with them for 12 sessions of time.  At 10 to 12 months, the babies were tested again and showed to be just as good with the sounds as other Taiwanese babies who had been listening to those sounds from birth!  This shows you how critical the critical period actually is.  The same test was done by using only video and then only audio, but there were no results, showing that it takes an actual human voice, in person, to do the trick. Babies are social learners it seems.
 
 By watching the actual video, perhaps some of the linguistic implications would be more clear, but this is a detailed explanation as to specifically why babies can acquire language so easily.  The older they get, there are other factors, but parents – consider this for your children!  If you are interested in giving your child the ability to speak more than one language at some point in their lives, these short few months could make a lot of the difference.
 
baby 1
 
Here is a summary of her TED talk, which I highly recommend watching!

This is how you grow

growth

Yesterday’s word, Tomorrow’s voice

“For last year’s words belong to last year’s language
And next year’s words await another voice.” -T.S. Eliot

past and future

Why “Soccer” and not “Football”? Blame it on the Brits!

So it`s the World Cup and what a joy to be in a place like Argentina during this time.  Just like any other event, be it a concert or local football game, the people are as passionate as you can imagine.  When Argentina plays, the streets are empty and you hear shouting and screaming from all the buildings around.   Restaurants and homes are decorated in flags of light blue and white.  Many offices are equipped with extra monitors and TVs to watch the games while working.  Store are closed in order to not miss a moment, and no one–except two foreigners (myself included)–came to a class that was scheduled before game 2 on a Saturday.  Whether you like football or not, it`s hard to not get sucked into the excitement somehow!

Cerrado

I`m American and grew up watching “the other football.”   You know – the one that does not have to do with feet at all?  Come on America!  Why do we have to be different than the rest of the world?  I have been annoyed by this, just like many of you, but there is a reason for it and it`s not American arrogance.  In fact, it`s the Brit`s fault!

football vs. soccer

 

The word “soccer” is a diminutive of association, as in As-soc-iation Football.   In the early 1800`s, a group of British universities took the medieval game “football”  and started playing their own versions of it, all with different rules.  In order to standardize things across the country, however, these games were categorized under different organizations and given different names.  One version of the game played with only hands became “Rugby Football.”  Another version was called  “Association Football.”   Rugby Football later became “Rugger” for short, and Association Football later became “Assoccer,” quickly changing to “Soccer” alone.

Eventually Rugby and Soccer both spread across to the United States  in the early 1900`s.  What was known as “Gridiron” in Britian was called Football in America and  “Association Football” kept the name “Soccer.”   The Brits also kept using the term  “Soccer” for a large part of the 20th century; in fact between 1960 and 1980, “Soccer” and “Football” were “almost interchangeable” terms in Britain.  The first documented case of the sport being called by the term “Football” was in 1881, 18 years after it was first called “Soccer” (or officially “Association Football.”)

Soccer is not as popular in the United States, although things are changing.  Of non-Brazilian fans visiting this year`s World Cup for example, the greatest number of fans come from the US!  Personal economics makes a difference of course, but that is more than neighboring Argentina fans.  Vamos USA!

So… it will be hard to overcome the many stereotypes against Americans and “Soccer” but remember this, it isn`t our fault!  I was surprised too!

 

 

Sources for this post:

Read more: http://www.businessinsider.com/why-americans-call-it-soccer-2014-6#ixzz35ZcK2qcp
http://www.theguardian.com/notesandqueries/query/0,5753,-2783,00.html

http://www.todayifoundout.com/index.php/2010/06/the-origin-of-the-word-soccer/

Post Navigation

Follow

Get every new post delivered to your Inbox.

Join 1,402 other followers

%d bloggers like this: