“People travel to wonder at the heights of mountains, at the huge waves of the sea, at the vast compass of the ocean, at the circular motion of the stars; and they pass by themselves without wondering.” –St Augustine
The present perfect isn`t an easy verb tense to learn and for Spanish speaking students, it doesn`t translate exactly, so all the more reason why it`s challenging. What a great idea to practice the verb tense with songs. Which song is your favorite?
I have climbed the highest mountain, I have run through the fields, but I still haven’t found…fourteen perfect songs to practice present perfect. Well, here are a variety of songs in present perfect, in every genre from pop to classic rock to rhythm and blues to ska. Vote on one to watch with the class, or watch them all. Don’t forget to tell us which was your favorite in the poll below.
1. U2 “I still haven’t found what I’m looking for”
This 1987 song by the Irish rock band U2 is popular in English classes learning the present perfect tense. How many of these things have you done?
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After living abroad, maybe someone has called you a “Citizen of the World,” as you now belong to more than one place. After leaving you tend to feel like you could go anywhere and the world doesn`t seem so big anymore. This has been my experience, and I think many others would agree.
The term “Citizen of the World” has come up yet again but this time for a much younger population: babies! In a recent TED Talk with Patricia Kuhl, the co-director of the Institute for Brain and Learning Sciences at the University of Washington, she explains how babies are the real “Citizens of the World,” linguistically-speaking.
New tools in modern neuroscience have shown the true magic that happens with babies in their brains during development. Children are naturally good at learning language (and better than adults), but why exactly? It is because of the critical period for learning, when their brains are more able and prepared to receive information, especially pertaining to language. Until the age of 7, children are “language geniuses really” and after 7, “they fall off the map,” Patricia tells us. If a child is to obtain the native accent of a language for example, they must be exposed (a lot) to the language before the age of 7. So one critical period for language development is before the age of 7!
There is another critical period between 6 to 8 months when babies are acquiring and mastering the specific sounds of the languages they hear around them, regardless of what language it is. In other words, during the short 2 month period, this is the time when babies are acquiring sounds which later become their language (or languages). If you expose a child to a native speaker of any language, during thistime, it will only make it easier for them to acquire that specific language, or another one similar, later.
So it`s the World Cup and what a joy to be in a place like Argentina during this time. Just like any other event, be it a concert or local football game, the people are as passionate as you can imagine. When Argentina plays, the streets are empty and you hear shouting and screaming from all the buildings around. Restaurants and homes are decorated in flags of light blue and white. Many offices are equipped with extra monitors and TVs to watch the games while working. Store are closed in order to not miss a moment, and no one–except two foreigners (myself included)–came to a class that was scheduled before game 2 on a Saturday. Whether you like football or not, it`s hard to not get sucked into the excitement somehow!
I`m American and grew up watching “the other football.” You know – the one that does not have to do with feet at all? Come on America! Why do we have to be different than the rest of the world? I have been annoyed by this, just like many of you, but there is a reason for it and it`s not American arrogance. In fact, it`s the Brit`s fault!
The word “soccer” is a diminutive of association, as in As-soc-iation Football. In the early 1800`s, a group of British universities took the medieval game “football” and started playing their own versions of it, all with different rules. In order to standardize things across the country, however, these games were categorized under different organizations and given different names. One version of the game played with only hands became “Rugby Football.” Another version was called “Association Football.” Rugby Football later became “Rugger” for short, and Association Football later became “Assoccer,” quickly changing to “Soccer” alone.
Eventually Rugby and Soccer both spread across to the United States in the early 1900`s. What was known as “Gridiron” in Britian was called Football in America and “Association Football” kept the name “Soccer.” The Brits also kept using the term “Soccer” for a large part of the 20th century; in fact between 1960 and 1980, “Soccer” and “Football” were “almost interchangeable” terms in Britain. The first documented case of the sport being called by the term “Football” was in 1881, 18 years after it was first called “Soccer” (or officially “Association Football.”)
Soccer is not as popular in the United States, although things are changing. Of non-Brazilian fans visiting this year`s World Cup for example, the greatest number of fans come from the US! Personal economics makes a difference of course, but that is more than neighboring Argentina fans. Vamos USA!
So… it will be hard to overcome the many stereotypes against Americans and “Soccer” but remember this, it isn`t our fault! I was surprised too!
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“Time is money” said the American, but “no it`s gold,” says the Spaniard. Expressions differ from culture to culture but a greater difference is that in how time is viewed and “practiced” from culture to culture . Since coming to Argentina, I must say I am quite adapted to how time works but there are always exceptions (meaning anything having to do with the dreaded word: tràmite.) I met an American traveling around the world in Buenos Aires, his first stop. He was surprised that I arrived 15 minutes late to meet him. Although I am much more loose with time than I used to be, I was still worried he would be bothered that I was late, but on the contrary. To him, me arriving 15 minutes late was “on time” compared to the average of 45 minutes late he had calculated with the Argentines he had met. “Forty-five minutes, is that all?” you think. Any North American or Northern European living in this “time chaos” have many stories of their own!
Argentina is a place where the lack of systems and infrastructure sometimes (always when related to a tràmite) make things take longer than you want, by American standards that is. It`s not just that it takes longer, sometimes you wonder if it will happen at all. There have been so many times when I have planned several “appointments” to see friends, but then all plans were thrown out the window when the first appointment started two hours late. Or going to a store and the salesman is not in a hurry to check you out, as working quicker is no guarantee for more profit nor is that the priority. Or what about those weekend nights when you return as the sun is rising? A club or bar does not get busy until 2 am and family parties go all night with even the young kids pulling all-nighters. And going to a restaurant or cafe is a real blessing as you can sit there for hours without complaint. This would be unheard of in the US without leaving a nice tip. This is Argentina. You love and hate how time works. It depends on where you come from and/or how tied you are to it.
Linear cultures are those who plan ahead, schedule, organize, are results oriented and do one thing at a time generally. These are profit-oriented societies where time is precious and viewed as even scarce. Time moves fast and if you want to benefit, you have to move fast with it. Americans, Swiss and Germans are in this category. According to the article “How Different Cultures Understand Time” from the Business Insider, Americans are people of action, and they cannot bear to be idle. They view the past as gone and the present moment as an opportunity. Argentina is considered a Multi-active culture–lively, people who do many things at once, planning their priorities not according to any time schedule but instead on the potential thrill or importance of each appointment. These cultures are emotional and people/relationship oriented. They make decisions based on feelings where linear cultures stick to the facts. Other cultures in the multi-active category include Italians and Arabs. The third category are Reactive cultures, those cultures that prioritize courtesy and respect, always listening (instead of talking like the multi-active) and carefully reacting to others` proposals. In this group, face to face contact is important, statements are promises, and the people are very harmony oriented. The Chinese, Japanese and Finns belong to this group.
There is also a “cyclical view” of time practiced in Eastern cultures where time is viewed neither as linear nor event/relationship oriented. With cyclical time, the sun rises and sets each day; the seasons follow one another year after year, and people grow old and die, but their children ensure that the process continues. Time is not scarce when time is cyclical and there always seems to be an unlimited supply of it. Asians do not see time as racing away as it would with a linear lens, but instead they view time as coming around again in a circle, where the same opportunities, risks and dangers will re- present themselves later, when you are wiser. Westerners instead are accustomed to making quick decisions and if a lot of time has passed without making a decision or producing something, it is often viewed as “wasted” time.
Although linear and cyclical cultures are very different, they both still see the past as something we have put behind us and the future as something that lies before us. In Madagascar, however, the opposite is true. The Malagasy people view the future from the back of their heads, or passing from behind. Instead it is the past that stretches out in front of them, because they can see it. They can look at the past, enjoy it, learn from it, and even “play” with it, such as by consulting their ancestors or even digging up their bones!
If you are planning to live or work abroad, you can never really be prepared for how time is viewed differently until you live it and learn to love it (although complaining is still allowed once in a while!) Just a few differences between English and Spanish that I have encountered when talking about time are the following:
The list goes on as do your personal stories. Feel free to share them on a comment. I`d love to hear more about your personal experiences related to time and culture!
The main sources for this post include the following articles: